Havadis, Tarihi Havadis
THE REFLECTIONS OF TURKISH REVOLUTION ON THE LANGUAGE BETWEEN 1930-1938 Tarihi-i Havadis, Tarihi Havadis
Tarihi-i Havadis, Tarihi Havadis
resulted in a holistic and radical change in patterns of human life.3 Although modernization is an evolutionary process, the main developments that has taken place in the modernization phenomenon are defined as Enlightenment, French Revolution and Industrial Revolution.4 Enlightenment has constituted the intellectual dimension of modernization. Along with the Enlightenment movement, basic concepts and approaches such as Rationalism, Humanism, Human Rights, Secularism, Democracy, Freedom, Equality, Positive Science Approach have also become an integral part of modern and mature societies.5 These features are also the milestones of Nation-States. XX. century is the century of ideologies and major transformations. The origin of this transformation is XIX century. XX. century has been the field of application of this transformation. XX. century was the century that Liberalism, Communism, Capitalism, Imperialism and similar movements and orders were born. XX. century is the century of concepts. The most important feature of the XX century was that the longing for independence has spread all over the world. Another source of inspiration for the rapid independence phenemonen of XX century was the war of national independence against the Western colonialist states in Anatolia and the Turkish Revolution during this war. Constitutionalism and Republic periods established the social change in Turkey. In the Ottoman history, the Tanzimat Edict has an important place in the history of renewal. This was the period when the Ottoman Empire tried to make comprehensive reforms in administrative, military, financial, judicial, educational and cultural fields. Although it was a discourse of reviving old Ottoman,” the idea of creating a new thought” has begun. In addition, the foundations of the movement of thought such as equality, freedom, democracy, republic, Islamism, nationalism, socialism, liberalism, positivism, materialism and feminism were laid during the Reorganization and Reformation periods. The developments in the constitutional period and especially in the Republic period has originated in terms of intellectual and institutive in Reorganization and Reformation periods.6 It would continue the social engineering project that started in the Ottoman-Turkish society in the 1860s, this time without losing ideological constitutional process of creatinga modern.7 The first organized opposition was the community called “İttihat-ı Osmaniye”which was established by the students of Military Medicine, İshak Sükûti, Mehmet Reşit, Abdullah Cevdet, İbrahim Temo and Hüseyinzade Ali in 1889. The power of this society expanded over time and it became “Osmanlı İttihat ve Terakki Cemiyeti” with Ahmet Rıza who took lessons from the French positivist Pierre Lafitte.8 These developments clearly show the intellectual heritage transferred from the II. Constitutional Monarchy and the Young Turks to Kemalism.9 We see that Turkish modernization has had an uninterrupted continuity starting from the Reorganisation ideology to the Kemalist six arrows.10 With the end of the War of Independence, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk implemented the social change project in a holistic approach that comprehended all dimensions of society. Especially after defining the National Pact, the staff turned towards the building a nation-state in a more radical way. 1. LANGUAGE ELEMENT IN NATIONAL STATE FORMATION The process which started with Renaissance and Reform and then continued with Enlightenment in European history has also shown its effect in political field. It was a basis for national communities, a new necessity to manage and it was a new idea that would conquer the masses and tie the nation to its state by overcoming ideologies with all individual interests. It was anew basis for national communities, a new necessity to manage a new idea that would conquer the masses and connect the nation to the state by overcoming ideologies with all individual interests. It was the idea of nation which saved Europe once more from disintegration, religious conflict and civil war and nurtured and fostered sense of community.